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Steel Deck Design Standards Eurocodes
 • EN 1991-1-1: Actions on Structures - General Actions
 • EN 1991-1-4: Actions on Structures - Wind Actions
 • EN 1991-1-5: Actions on Structures - Thermal Actions
 • EN 1991-1-7: Actions on Structures - Accidental Actions
 • EN 1991-2: Actions on Structures - Traffic Loads on Bridges
 • EN 1993-1-1: Design of Steel Structures - General Rules
 • EN 1993-1-5: Design of Steel Structures - Plated structures without
  transverse loading
 • EN 1993-1-7: Design of Steel Structures - Plated structures with out-of-
  plane loading
 • EN 1993-1-8: Design of Steel Structures - Joints
 • EN 1993-1-9: Design of Steel Structures - Fatigue
 • EN 1993-1-10: Design of Steel Structures - Material toughness
 • EN 1993-1-11: Design of Steel Structures - Tension members
 • EN 1993-2: Design of Steel Structures - Bridges
 • Each document is accompanied by a National Annex
British Standards
 • BS 499: Welding terms and symbols
 • BS 4395: Specification for high strength friction grip bolts and associated
  nuts and washers for structural engineering metric series
 • BS 5400 Part 2: Specification for Loads
 • BS 5400 Part 3: Code of Practice for the Design of Steel Bridges
 • BS 5400 Part 10: Code of Practice for Fatigue
 • BS EN 10025 Parts 1 to 6: Hot rolled products of structural steels
Design Manual for Roads and Bridges
 • BA9: Use of BS5400 Part 10
 • BD13: Design of Steel Bridges
 • BD37: Loads for Highway Bridges
 • BA53: Bracing Systems for the Use of U-Frames in Steel Highway Bridges

Cable stayed bridges are generally used for bridge spans between 150m and 1000m. They are often chosen for their aesthetics, but are generally economical for spans in excess of 250m.



Cable stayed girders were developed in Germany during the reconstruction period after the last war and attributed largely to the works of Fritz Leonhardt. Straight cables are connected directly to the deck and induce significant axial forces into the deck. The structure is consequently self anchoring and depends less on the foundation conditions than the suspension bridge.
The cables and the deck are erected at the same time which speeds up the construction time and reduces the amount of temporary works required. The cable lengths are adjusted during construction to counteract the dead load deflections of the deck due to extension in the cable.
Most early cable-stayed bridges have an orthotropic deck, mainly because the long span bridges were usually built by steel companies. It was considered economical to use composite slabs for spans up to about 250m. Developments in concrete technology have now allowed higher grade strenghs to be used. This development, combined with the increased cost of steel, has seen longer composite deck spans being used economically. Spans in excess of 600m are now being built using a steel-concrete composite box girder constuction.
Either box girders or plate girders (for the shorter spans) can be used in the deck, however if a single plane of cables is used then it is essential to use the box girder construction to achieve torsional stability.


Bridge Components | Choice of Deck