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Steel Deck Design Standards Eurocodes
 
 • EN 1991-1-1: Actions on Structures - General Actions
 • EN 1991-1-4: Actions on Structures - Wind Actions
 • EN 1991-1-5: Actions on Structures - Thermal Actions
 • EN 1991-1-7: Actions on Structures - Accidental Actions
 • EN 1991-2: Actions on Structures - Traffic Loads on Bridges
 • EN 1993-1-1: Design of Steel Structures - General Rules
 • EN 1993-1-5: Design of Steel Structures - Plated structures without
  transverse loading
 • EN 1993-1-7: Design of Steel Structures - Plated structures with out-of-
  plane loading
 • EN 1993-1-8: Design of Steel Structures - Joints
 • EN 1993-1-9: Design of Steel Structures - Fatigue
 • EN 1993-1-10: Design of Steel Structures - Material toughness
 • EN 1993-1-11: Design of Steel Structures - Tension members
 • EN 1993-2: Design of Steel Structures - Bridges
 • Each document is accompanied by a National Annex
 
British Standards
 
 • BS 499: Welding terms and symbols
 • BS 4395: Specification for high strength friction grip bolts and associated
  nuts and washers for structural engineering metric series
 • BS 5400 Part 2: Specification for Loads
 • BS 5400 Part 3: Code of Practice for the Design of Steel Bridges
 • BS 5400 Part 10: Code of Practice for Fatigue
 • BS EN 10025 Parts 1 to 6: Hot rolled products of structural steels
 
Design Manual for Roads and Bridges
 
 • BA9: Use of BS5400 Part 10
 • BD13: Design of Steel Bridges
 • BD37: Loads for Highway Bridges
 • BA53: Bracing Systems for the Use of U-Frames in Steel Highway Bridges
 

Suspension bridges are used for bridge spans in excess of 350m.
 

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Some of the world's longest bridge main spans are:
 

Bridge Name (Country)

Main Span

Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge (Japan)

1990m

Xihoumen Bridge (China)

1650m

Great Belt Bridge (Denmark)

1624m

Yi Sun-sin Bridge (South Korea)

1545m

Runyang Bridge (China)

1490m

Nanjing Fourth Yangtze Bridge (China)

1418m

Humber Bridge (UK)

1410m

Jiangyin Suspension Bridge (China)

1385m

Tsing Ma (Hong Kong)

1377m

Hardanger Bridge (Norway)

1310m

Verrazano Narrows (USA)

1298m

Golden Gate (USA)

1280m

Yangluo Bridge (China)

1280m

Höga Kusten Bridge (Sweden)

1210m

Aizhai Bridge (China)

1176m

Mackinac Bridge (USA)

1158m

Huangpu Bridge (China)

1108m

Minami Bisan-Seto Bridge (Japan)

1100m

Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge (Turkey)

1090m

Balinghe Bridge (China)

1088m

Taizhou Bridge (China)

1080m

Ma′anshan Bridge (China)

1158m

Bosporus Bridge(Turkey)

1074m

George Washington Bridge(USA)

1067m

Third Kurushima-Kaikyõ Bridge (Japan)

1030m

Second Kurushima-Kaikyõ Bridge (Japan)

1020m

25 de Abril Bridge [formerly Salazar Bridge] (Portugal)

1013m

Forth Road Bridge (UK)

1006m

Kita Bisan-Seto Bridge (Japan)

990m

Severn Bridge (UK)

988m

Yichang Bridge (China)

960m

Tacoma Narrows (USA)

853m

 
A number of early suspension bridges were designed without the appreciation of wind effects. Large deflections were developed in the flexible decks and wind loading created unstable oscillations. The problem was largely solved by using inclined hangers.
The suspension bridge is essentially a catenary cable prestressed by dead weight. The cables are guided over the support towers to ground anchors. The stiffened deck is supported mainly by vertical or inclined hangers.
 
 

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